# Indicators Alphabetically

### acos

Calculates the `arccos` function of the input, i.e.: the inverse trigonometric function of `cos` Formula: - acos = arccos(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_trigonometric_functions Aliases: ACOS, arccos, arccosine Inputs: close Outputs: acos Params: - degrees (default: False)

### ad

Originally the "Cumulative Money Flow Line" by Mark Chaikin, which attempts to measure the incoming and outgoing flow of money by using the volume in addition the standard price components. Formula: - mfm = ((close - high) + (close - low)) / (high - low) - ergo: mfm = (2*close - high - low) / (high - low) - mfv = mf * volume - ad = cumulative_sum(mvf) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accumulation/distribution_index - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:accumulation_distribution_line Aliases: AD, adl, ADL, ChaikinAD, ChaikinADL, chaikinad Inputs: high, low, close, volume Outputs: ad

### add

Calculates the summation of the two inputs Formula: - add = data0 + data1 Aliases: ADD Inputs: input1, input2 Outputs: add

### adosc

The Chaikin Oscillator applies a `MACD` formula to the Accumulation/Distribution Line (`ad`) to calculate the momentum of the money flow. See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaikin_Analytics#Chaikin_Oscillator - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:chaikin_oscillator - https://www.metastock.com/customer/resources/taaz/?p=41 Aliases: ADOSC, ChaikinADOSC, ChaikinOsc, ChaikinOscillator Inputs: high, low, close, volume Outputs: adosc Params: - pfast (default: 3) Fast ema period - pslow (default: 10) Slow ema period - _ma (default: ema) Moving average to use TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Switch to `ewma` (i.e.: *exponential weighted moving mean* with no seed instead of using a standard `ema` exponential moving average

### adx

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - +dm = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 - -dm = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 - +di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(+dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) - -di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(-dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) - dx = 100 * abs(+di - -di) / (+di + -di) - adx = MovingAverage(dx, period) The moving average used is the one originally defined by Wilder, the SmoothedMovingAverage See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - The `_alt` parameter changes the formula to use the SmoothedMovingAverage in place of `SmoothAccum` as is interpreted by several alternative sources (which also effectively implies that `SmoothAccum(truerange, period) = ATR(high, low, close, period)` Aliases: ADX, AverageDirectionalIndex, AVERAGEDIRECTIONALINDEX Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: adx Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Increase period by 1, but keep 1-period early calculation from dm intact

### adxr

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - adxr = (adx - adx(-period)) / 2.0 See also: - Aliases: ADXR, AverageDirectionalIndexRating Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: adxr Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) - _prating (default: None) Use as rating period instead of default period TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): ta-lib uses period - 1 for the adxr formula when summing the current adx and the adx from `period` ago

### apo

```
Shows the difference between a short and long exponential moving
averages expressed in points, unlike the `ppo` which does in percent values
Formula:
- apo = ema(data, pfast) - ema(data, pslow)
See:
- http://www.metastock.com/Customer/Resources/TAAZ/?c=3&p=94
- https://www.tradingtechnologies.com/xtrader-help/x-study/technical-indicator-definitions/absolute-price-oscillator-apo/
Aliases: APO, AbsolutePriceOscillator, PriceOscillator
Inputs: close
Outputs: apo
Params:
- pfast (default: 12)
- pslow (default: 26)
- _ma (default: ema)
TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"):
Set moving average to sma instead of ema
```

### aroon

Developed by Tushar Chande in 1995. It tries to determine if a trend exists or not by calculating how far away within a given period the last highs/lows are (AroonUp/AroonDown) Formula: - up = 100 * (period - distance to highest high) / period - down = 100 * (period - distance to lowest low) / period Note: The lines oscillate between 0 and 100. That means that the "distance" to the last highest or lowest must go from 0 to period so that the formula can yield 0 and 100. Hence the lookback period is period + 1, because the current bar is also taken into account. And therefore this indicator needs an effective lookback period of period + 1. See: - http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:aroon Aliases: AROON, Aroon Inputs: high, low Outputs: aroondn, aroonup Params: - period (default: 14)

### aroonosc

It is a variation of the AroonUpDown indicator which shows the current difference between the AroonUp and AroonDown value, trying to present a visualization which indicates which is stronger (greater than 0 -> AroonUp and less than 0 -> AroonDown) Formula: - aroonosc = aroonup - aroondn See: - http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:aroon Aliases: AROONOSC, AroonOscillator Inputs: high, low Outputs: aroonosc Params: - period (default: 14)

### asin

Calculates the `arcsin` function of the input, i.e.: the inverse trigonometric function of `sin` Formula: - asin = arcsin(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_trigonometric_functions Aliases: ASIN, arcsin, arcsine Inputs: close Outputs: asin Params: - degrees (default: False)

### atan

Calculates the `arctan` function of the input, i.e.: the inverse trigonometric function of `tan` Formula: - atan = arctan(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse_trigonometric_functions Aliases: ATAN, arctan, arctangent Inputs: close Outputs: atan Params: - degrees (default: False)

### atr

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. The idea is to take the close into account to calculate the range if it yields a larger range than the daily range (High - Low) Formula: - truerange = max(high, close(-1)) - min(low, close(-1)) - atr = SmoothedMovingAverage(truerange, period) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_true_range Aliases: ATR, AverageTrueRange Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: atr Params: - _period (default: 1) - period (default: 14) Period to consider - _ma (default: smma) Moving average to use

### avgprice

Returns the average of the 4 OHLC price components Formula: - avg = (open + high + low + close) / 3 See: - (None) Aliases: AvgPrice, AveragePrice, AVGPrice, AVGPRICE Inputs: open, high, low, close Outputs: avg Params: - divisor (default: 4.0) Factor to use in the division

### bbands

Defined by John Bollinger in the 80s. It measures volatility by defining upper and lower bands at distance x standard deviations Formula: - midband = SimpleMovingAverage(close, period) - topband = midband + devfactor * StandardDeviation(data, period) - botband = midband - devfactor * StandardDeviation(data, period) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bollinger_Bands Aliases: BBANDS, BollingerBands, BOLLINGERBANDS Inputs: close Outputs: mid, top, bot Params: - period (default: 20) Period to consider - devs (default: 2.0) Standard Deviations of Top/Bottom Bands - _ma (default: sma) Moving average to use - _stdev (default: stddev) Standard Deviation Calculation to use TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 5

### beta

The description of the algorithm has been adapted from `ta-lib` The Beta 'algorithm' is a measure of a stocks volatility vs from index. The stock prices are given as the 1st input and the index prices are given in the 2nd input. The size of the inputs should be equal. The algorithm is to calculate the change between prices in both inputs and then 'plot' these changes are points in the Euclidean plane. The x value of the point is market return and the y value is the security return. The beta value is the slope of a linear regression through these points. A beta of 1.0 is simple the line y=x, so the stock varies precisely with the market. A beta of less than 1.0 means the stock varies less thandd the market and a beta of more than 1.0 means the stock varies more than market. See: - http://www.moneychimp.com/articles/risk/regression.htm Aliases: BETA, Beta Inputs: asset, market Outputs: beta Params: - period (default: 5) Period to consider - _prets (default: 1) Lookback period to calculate the returns - _rets (default: True) Calculate beta on returns

### bop

Bop tries to determine the power of buyers vs sellers, by calculating the power of being able to take the price to the extremes. Igor Livshin introduced in August 2001 in the Stocks and Commodities Magazine Formula: - bop = (close - open) / (high - low) See also: - https://www.interactivebrokers.com/en/software/tws/usersguidebook/technicalanalytics/balancePower.htm - https://www.marketvolume.com/technicalanalysis/balanceofpower.asp Aliases: BOP, BalanceOfPower Inputs: open, high, low, close Outputs: bop

### cci

Introduced by Donald Lambert in 1980 to measure variations of the "typical price" (see below) from its mean to identify extremes and reversals Formula: - tp = typical_price = (high + low + close) / 3 - tpmean = MovingAverage(tp, period) - deviation = tp - tpmean - meandev = MeanDeviation(tp) - cci = deviation / (meandeviation * factor) See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodity_channel_index Aliases: CCI, CommodityChannelIndex Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: cci Params: - period (default: 20) Period to consider - factor (default: 0.015) Channel width factor - _ma (default: sma) Moving Average to sue - _dev (default: mad) Deviation to use (Def: Mean Abs Dev) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 14

### ceil

Calculates the `ceil` function which maps the input to the least integer greater than or equal to the input Formula: - ceil = ceil(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floor_and_ceiling_functions Aliases: CEIL Inputs: close Outputs: ceil

### cmo

Formula: - sum_updays = Sum(max(close - close(-1), 0.0), period) - sum_downdays = Sum(abs(min(close - close(-1)), 0.0), period) - cmo = 100 * (sum_updays - sum_downdays) / (sum_updays + sum_downdays) See also: - https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/chandemomentumoscillator.asp - https://www.tradingtechnologies.com/xtrader-help/x-study/technical-indicator-definitions/chande-momentum-oscillator-cmo/ Aliases: CMO, ChandeMomentumOscillator Inputs: close Outputs: cmo Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider - _sum (default: sum) Summation used to accumulate updays/downdays TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Against what the book by Chande states, ta-lib smooths the values before performing the RSI like calculation using the `smma`, whereas Chande clearly states that the advantage of his oscillator is the fact that unsmoothed values are being used

### correl

Rolling Pearson correlation of the two inputs `asset1` and `asset2` Note: the default inputs are named `high` and `low` to ensure an easy match with a multiple input (dataframe). But they can be anything See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearson_correlation_coefficient Aliases: CORREL, Correl Inputs: high, low Outputs: correl Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider - _prets (default: 1) Lookback period to calculate the returns - _rets (default: True) Calculate beta on returns

### cos

Calculates the `cosine` function of the input Formula: - cos = cosine(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions Aliases: COS, cosine Inputs: close Outputs: cos Params: - degrees (default: False)

### cosh

Calculates the `secant` function of the input (1/cosine) Formula: - cosh = secant(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions Aliases: COSH, secant Inputs: close Outputs: cosh Params: - degrees (default: False)

### crossdown

This indicator gives a signal if the 1st provided data crosses over the 2nd indicator upwards It does need to look into the current time index (0) and the previous time index (-1) of both the 1st and 2nd data Formula: - crossdown = data0(-1) > data1(-1) and data0 < data1 Aliases: CrossDown Inputs: crosser, crossed Outputs: crossdown Params: - _strict (default: False)

### crossover

This indicator gives a signal if the provided datas (2) cross up or down. - `1.0` if the 1st data crosses the 2nd data upwards - `-1.0` if the 1st data crosses the 2nd data downwards It does need to look into the current time index (0) and the previous time index (-1) of both the 1st and 2nd data Formula: - crossup = data0(-1) < data1(-1) and data0 > data1 - crossdown = data0(-1) > data1(-1) and data0 < data1 - crossover = crossup - crossdown Aliases: CrossOver Inputs: crosser, crossed Outputs: crossover Params: - _strict (default: False)

### crossup

This indicator gives a signal if the 1st provided data crosses over the 2nd indicator upwards It does need to look into the current time index (0) and the previous time index (-1) of both the 1st and 2nd data Formula: - crossup = data0(-1) < data1(-1) and data0 > data1 Aliases: CrossUp Inputs: crosser, crossed Outputs: crossup Params: - _strict (default: False)

### dema

```
DEMA was first time introduced in 1994, in the article "Smoothing Data with
Faster Moving Averages" by Patrick G. Mulloy in "Technical Analysis of
Stocks & Commodities" magazine.
It attempts to reduce the inherent lag associated to Moving Averages
Formula:
- dema = (2.0 * ema(data, period)) - ema(ema(data, period), period)
See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_exponential_moving_average
Aliases: DEMA, DoubleExponentialMovingAverage
Inputs: close
Outputs: dema
Params:
- period (default: 30)
Period to consider
- _ma (default: ema)
Moving Average to use
```

### di

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - +dm = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 - -dm = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 - +di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(+dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) - -di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(-dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - The `_alt` parameter changes the formula to use the SmoothedMovingAverage in place of `SmoothAccum` as is interpreted by several alternative sources (which also effectively implies that `SmoothAccum(truerange, period) = ATR(high, low, close, period)` Aliases: DI, DirectionalIndicator, DIRECTIONALINDICATOR Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: plusdi, minusdi Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Increase period by 1, but keep 1-period early calculation from dm intact

### div

Calculates the division of the two inputs Formula: - div = data0 / data1 Aliases: DIV Inputs: input1, input2 Outputs: div

### dm

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - +dm1 = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 - -dm1 = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 - +dm = SmoothAccum(+dm1, period) - -dm = SmoothAccum(-dm1, period) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - Although the original definition from Welles Wilder for DirectionalMove does not imply a period, `ta-lib` defines `plus_dm` (+dm) and `minus_dm` (-dm) with a period over which they are accumulted. The accumulation was defined within the scope of the `DirectionalIndicator` (+di, -di) definition. Aliases: DM, DirectionalMovement Inputs: high, low Outputs: plusdm, minusdm Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Calculate seed 1-period too early and therefore deliver one period too early

### dx

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - +dm = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 - -dm = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 - +di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(+dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) - -di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(-dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) - dx = 100 * abs(+di - -di) / (+di + -di) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - The `_alt` parameter changes the formula to use the SmoothedMovingAverage in place of `SmoothAccum` as is interpreted by several alternative sources (which also effectively implies that `SmoothAccum(truerange, period) = ATR(high, low, close, period)` Aliases: DX, DirectionalIndex, DIRECTIONALINDEX Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: dx Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Increase period by 1, but keep 1-period early calculation from dm intact

### ema

A Moving Average that smoothes data exponentially over time. - Exponential Smotthing factor: alpha = 2 / (1 + period) Formula - prev = mean(data, period) - movav = prev * (1.0 - alpha) + newdata * alpha - (or alternatively # movav = prev + alpha(new - prev)) See also: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moving_average#Exponential_moving_average Aliases: EMA, ExponentialMovingAverage Inputs: close Outputs: ema Params: - period (default: 30) Period for the moving average calculation - _seed (default: 0) Default to use average of periods as seed

### ewma

This is **NOT** the `ema` or `ExponentialMovingAverage`. This is a wrap around pandas.Series.ewm where `ewma` stands for `ExponentialWeigthedMean` ... to which later a function like `mean` is applied Applying `mean` doesn't make it the `ExponentialMovingAverage` (aka `EMA` or `ema`) because `ewma` in `pandas.Series` or `pandas.DataFrames` does not support using a seed of the first n periods of an `ewm` of `span=n` The purpose of this, is to be able to use this in place of the real `ema` with parameters like `period` and `_seed` for compatibility. Aliases: EWMA Inputs: close Outputs: ewma Params: - period (default: 30) Default Period for the ewm calculation - adjust (default: False) Default calc individual terms like in `ema` - _seed (default: 0) (nop) for compatibility with `ema`

### exp

Calculates the natural logarithm of the input, i.e.: the logarithm with base `e` Formula: - exp = exp(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_function Aliases: EXP Inputs: close Outputs: exp

### floor

Calculates the `floor` function which maps the input to the greatest integer least than or equal to the input Formula: - floor = floor(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floor_and_ceiling_functions Aliases: FLOOR Inputs: close Outputs: floor

### gdema

```
Described first by Tim Tillson in Stocks & Commodities V16:1, January 1998
for its use in the T3 indicator.
It generalizes the DEMA by using a "volume" factor to put weight on
the 1st or 2nd factor of the DEMA to smooth the output.
When "vfactor" is 1, the DEMA is the output. When "vfactor" is 0, the
output is s simple EMA.
Aliases: gd, GD, GDEMA, GeneralizedDEMA
Inputs: close
Outputs: gd
Params:
- period (default: 5)
Period to consider
- vfactor (default: 0.7)
volume factor
- _ma (default: ema)
Moving Average to use
```

### ht_dcperiod

Ehlers': Hilber Transform Dominant Cycle Period Formula: - From *"Rocket Science for Traders: Digital Signal Processing Applications"* See: - https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Science-Traders-Processing-Applications/dp/0471405671 Aliases: HT_DCPERIOD, HilberTransform_DominantCyclePeriod Inputs: high, low Outputs: dcperiod

### ht_dcphase

Ehlers': Hilber Transform Dominant Cycle Phase Formula: - From *"Rocket Science for Traders: Digital Signal Processing Applications"* See: - https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Science-Traders-Processing-Applications/dp/0471405671 Aliases: HT_DCPHASE, HilberTransform_DominantCyclePhase Inputs: high, low Outputs: dcphase

### ht_phasor

Ehlers': Hilbert Transform Phasor Formula: - From *"Rocket Science for Traders: Digital Signal Processing Applications"* See: - https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Science-Traders-Processing-Applications/dp/0471405671 Aliases: HT_PHASOR, HilberTransform_Phasor Inputs: high, low Outputs: inphase, quadrature

### ht_sine

Ehlers': Hilber Transform Sine Formula: - From *"Rocket Science for Traders: Digital Signal Processing Applications"* See: - https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Science-Traders-Processing-Applications/dp/0471405671 Aliases: HT_SINE, HilberTransform_Sine Inputs: high, low Outputs: sine, leadsine

### ht_trendline

Ehlers': Hilber Transform Dominant Cycle Period Formula: - From *"Rocket Science for Traders: Digital Signal Processing Applications"* See: - https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Science-Traders-Processing-Applications/dp/0471405671 Aliases: HT_TRENDLINE, HilberTransform_Trendline Inputs: high, low Outputs: trendline

### ht_trendmode

Ehlers': Hilber Transform Trend Mode Formula: - From *"Rocket Science for Traders: Digital Signal Processing Applications"* See: - https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Science-Traders-Processing-Applications/dp/0471405671 Aliases: HT_TRENDMODE, HilberTransform_Trendmode Inputs: high, low Outputs: trendline

### kama

Defined by Perry Kaufman in his book `"Smarter Trading"`. It is A Moving Average with a continuously scaled smoothing factor by taking into account market direction and volatility. The smoothing factor is calculated from 2 ExponetialMovingAverage smoothing factors, a fast one and slow one. If the market trends the value will tend to the fast ema smoothing period. If the market doesn't trend it will move towards the slow EMA smoothing period. It is a subclass of SmoothingMovingAverage, overriding once to account for the live nature of the smoothing factor Formula: - direction = close - close_period - volatility = sumN(abs(close - close_n), period) - effiency_ratio = abs(direction / volatility) - smoothing constant fast = 2 / (fast_period + 1) - smoothing constant slow = 2 / (slow_period + 1) - smoothing factor = pow(efficienty_ratio * (fast - slow) + slow), 2) - kama = ewm(data, alpha=smoothing factor, period=period) Notice that "smoothing factor" isn't a single value, hence the exponentially weighted moving average uses a value which changes for each step of the calculation. The standard seed is the simple moving average, use _seed=btalib.SEED_LAST to apply the "last" known value of the input as the seed (for compatibility this can be simply `True` or `1`) Because the dynamic smoothing constant has a larger period (+1) than the actual moving average, this average has alrady a seed value when the calculation can start. Hence the seed value (eithre the simple moving average or the last known value, is not seen because it can be calculated before the actual period comes in effect) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:kaufman_s_adaptive_moving_average - http://fxcodebase.com/wiki/index.php/Kaufman's_Adaptive_Moving_Average_(KAMA) - http://www.metatrader5.com/en/terminal/help/analytics/indicators/trend_indicators/ama - http://help.cqg.com/cqgic/default.htm#!Documents/adaptivemovingaverag2.htm Aliases: KAMA, KaufmanAdaptiveMovingAverage Inputs: close Outputs: kama Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider - fast (default: 2) Fast exponential smoothing factor - slow (default: 30) Slow exponential smoothing factor - _seed (default: 0) Default to use average of n periods as seed - _pvol (default: 1) Lookback period for volatility calculation TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Apply las value as seed, instead of average of period values

### linearreg

Linear Regression of the values of an asset (y-axis) along the "x" (period window, x-axix) using the least squares method to find the best fit. Formula: - y = b + m * x **This indicator returns: "b + m * x" (using x = period - 1)** See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinary_least_squares#Simple_linear_regression_model - https://devarea.com/linear-regression-with-numpy/ Aliases: LINEARREG, LinearReg, linreg Inputs: close Outputs: linreg Params: - period (default: 14) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): `pminus1` is there for compatibility with the broken ta-lib behavior If active, "p1" will be p - 1 and calculations will diverge by having "0" as the 1st item of "x" ([0, period] instead of [1, period + 1]) The 1st behavior is used by ta-lib for `linearreg`, `linearreg_intercept` and `tsf`. The 2nd behavior is used by ta-lib for `linearreg_slope` and `linearreg_angle`. Intercept can be calculated as follows b = (Sum(y) - m * Sum(x)) / n. In the default `ta-lib` behavior (and in the compatible one with this method) this equation isn't true due to the different period ranges used for the calculations.

### linearreg_angle

Linear Regression of the values of an asset (y-axis) along the "x" (period window, x-axix) using the least squares method to find the best fit. Formula: - y = b + m * x **This indicator returns: "m" or (slope)** (expressed in degrees) See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinary_least_squares#Simple_linear_regression_model - https://devarea.com/linear-regression-with-numpy/ Aliases: LINEARREG_ANGLE, LinearReg_Angle, linreg_angle Inputs: close Outputs: slope Params: - period (default: 14)

### linearreg_intercept

Linear Regression of the values of an asset (y-axis) along the "x" (period window, x-axix) using the least squares method to find the best fit. Formula: - y = b + m * x **This indicator returns: "b" or (intercept)** See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinary_least_squares#Simple_linear_regression_model - https://devarea.com/linear-regression-with-numpy/ Aliases: LINEARREG_INTERCEPT, LinearReg_Intercept, linreg_intercept Inputs: close Outputs: intercept Params: - period (default: 14) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): `pminus1` is there for compatibility with the broken ta-lib behavior If active, "p1" will be p - 1 and calculations will diverge by having "0" as the 1st item of "x" ([0, period] instead of [1, period + 1]) The 1st behavior is used by ta-lib for `linearreg`, `linearreg_intercept` and `tsf`. The 2nd behavior is used by ta-lib for `linearreg_slope` and `linearreg_angle`. Intercept can be calculated as follows b = (Sum(y) - m * Sum(x)) / n. In the default `ta-lib` behavior (and in the compatible one with this method) this equation isn't true due to the different period ranges used for the calculations.

### linearreg_slope

Linear Regression of the values of an asset (y-axis) along the "x" (period window, x-axix) using the least squares method to find the best fit. Formula: - y = b + m * x **This indicator returns: "m" or (slope)** See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinary_least_squares#Simple_linear_regression_model - https://devarea.com/linear-regression-with-numpy/ Aliases: LINEARREG_SLOPE, LinearReg_Slope, linreg_slope Inputs: close Outputs: slope Params: - period (default: 14)

### ln

Calculates the natural logarithm of the input, i.e.: the logarithm with base `e` Formula: - ln = ln(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_logarithm Aliases: LN, log, LOG Inputs: close Outputs: ln

### log10

Calculates the common logarithm, i.e.: the logarithm with base 10, of the input Formula: - log10 = log10(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_logarithm Aliases: LOG10 Inputs: close Outputs: log10

### macd

Moving Average Convergence Divergence. Defined by Gerald Appel in the 70s. It measures the distance of a fast and a slow moving average to try to identify the trend. A second lagging moving average over the convergence-divergence should provide a "signal" upon being crossed by the macd Formula: - macd = ma(data, pfast) - ma(data, pslow) - signal = ma(macd, psignal) - histogram = macd - signal See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MACD Aliases: MACD, MovingAverageConvergenceDivergence, MACDEXT, MACDFIX Inputs: close Outputs: macd, signal, histogram Params: - pfast (default: 12) Fast moving average period - pslow (default: 26) Slow moving average period - psignal (default: 9) Signal smoothing period - _ma (default: ema) Moving average to use - _masig (default: None) Signal moving average (if `None`, same as others) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Start fast ema calc delivery at the offset of the slow ema

### mad

Calculates the Mean Absolute Deviation ('mad') of the input over a given period See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_absolute_deviation Aliases: MAD, meandev, MeanDev, MeanDeviation, MeanAbsDeviation Inputs: close Outputs: meandev Params: - period (default: 20) Period to consider - _ma (default: sma) Moving Average to use

### mama

Quoting Ehlers: "The MESA Adaptive Moving Average (MAMA) adapts to price movement in an entirely new and unique way. The adapation is based on the rate change of phase as measured by the Hilbert Transform Discriminator" Formula: - The formula is overly complex. See the linked PDF from Ehlers himself See: - https://www.mesasoftware.com/papers/MAMA.pdf Aliases: MAMA, MesaAdaptiveMovingAverage Inputs: high, low Outputs: mama, fama Params: - fastlimit (default: 0.5) Fast Limit - slowlimit (default: 0.05) Fast Limit

### mavp

Moving Average Variable Period. It takes two inputs of equal length - data (usually the "close" - periods It delivers for each timepoint "i", the value of the moving average dictated by period[i], at point it (movingaverage[i]) Formula: - mavp[i] = MovingAverage(data, period[i])[i] See also: - (None) Aliases: MAVP, MovingAverageVariablePeriod Inputs: close, periods Outputs: mavp Params: - minperiod (default: 2) Minimum allowed period for the moving averages - maxperiod (default: 30) Maximum allowed period for the moving averages - _ma (default: sma) Moving Average to use

### max

Rolling maximum over `period` of the input Formula: - max = max(data, period) Aliases: highest, Highest, maxn, MaxN, MAX Inputs: close Outputs: max Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider

### maxindex

Rolling index of the max value over a period Formula: - maxindex = data.index(max(data, period)) Aliases: MAXINDEX Inputs: close Outputs: maxindex Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider - _absidx (default: False) Return maxindex over the entire period TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): ta-lib returns 0 as index during the warm-up period and then returns the absolute index over the entire series and not over the window period

### medprice

Delivers the Median Price Formula: - med = (high + low) / 2.0 See: - https://www.metastock.com/customer/resources/taaz/?p=70 Aliases: WCLPrice, WeightedClosePrice, WCLPRICE, weightedcloseprice Inputs: high, low Outputs: med Params: - divisor (default: 2.0) Factor to use in the division

### mfi

Created by Gene Quong and Avrum Soudack to identify buying/selling pressure by combining price and volume in the calculation. Pressure is positive if the (typical) price increases and negative if it decreases. The volume is the weight factor for how much pressure is being exercised on the asset. Formula: - tp = typical_price = (high + low + close) / 3 - money_flow_raw = tp * volume - flow_positive = Sum(money_flow_raw * (tp > tp(-1)), period) - flow_netagive = Sum(money_flow_raw * (tp < tp(-1)), period) - money_flow_ratio = flow_positive / flow_negative - mfi 100 - 100 / (1 + money_flow_ratio) See: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:money_flow_index_mfi - https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/mfi.asp Aliases: MFI, MoneyFlowIndicator Inputs: high, low, close, volume Outputs: mfi Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider

### midpoint

Calculates the middle price of the highest/lowest price across a period Formula: - midpoint = (Highest(close, period) + Lowest(close, period)) / 2.0 See: - https://www.tradingtechnologies.com/xtrader-help/x-study/technical-indicator-definitions/midpoint-midpnt/ Aliases: MIDPOINT, MidPoint Inputs: close Outputs: midpoint Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider

### midprice

Calculates the middle price of the highest high/lowest low across a period Formula: - midprice = (Highest(high, period) + Lowest(low, period)) / 2.0 See: - https://www.tradingtechnologies.com/xtrader-help/x-study/technical-indicator-definitions/midprice-midpri/ Aliases: MIDPRICE, MidPrice Inputs: high, low Outputs: midprice Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider

### min

Rolling minimum over `period` of the input Formula: - min = min(data, period) Aliases: lowest, Lowest, minn, MinN, MIN Inputs: close Outputs: min Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider

### minindex

Rolling index of the max value over a period Formula: - maxindex = data.index(max(data, period)) Aliases: MININDEX Inputs: close Outputs: minindex Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider - _absidx (default: False) Return maxindex over the entire period TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): ta-lib returns 0 as index during the warm-up period and then returns the absolute index over the entire series and not over the window period

### minmax

Rolling the minimum and maximo over `period` of the input Formula: - min = min(data, period) - min = max(data, period) Aliases: MINMAX Inputs: close Outputs: min, max Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider

### minmaxindex

Rolling index of the max value over a period Formula: - maxindex = data.index(max(data, period)) Aliases: MINMAXINDEX Inputs: close Outputs: minindex, maxindex Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider - _absidx (default: False) Return maxindex over the entire period TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): ta-lib returns 0 as index during the warm-up period and then returns the absolute index over the entire series and not over the window period

### minus_di

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - -dm = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 - -di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(-dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - The `_alt` parameter changes the formula to use the SmoothedMovingAverage in place of `SmoothAccum` as is interpreted by several alternative sources (which also effectively implies that `SmoothAccum(truerange, period) = ATR(high, low, close, period)` Aliases: MINUS_DI, MinusDirectionalIndicator Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: minusdi Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Increase period by 1, but keep 1-period early calculation from dm intact

### minus_dm

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - -dm1 = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 - -dm = SmoothAccum(-dm1, period) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - Although the original definition from Welles Wilder for DirectionalMove does not imply a period, `ta-lib` defines `plus_dm` (+dm) and `minus_dm` (-dm) with a period over which they are accumulted. The accumulation was defined within the scope of the `DirectionalIndicator` (+di, -di) definition. Aliases: MINUS_DM, MinusDirectionalMovement Inputs: high, low Outputs: minusdm Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Calculate seed 1-period too early and therefore deliver one period too early

### mom

Measures the change in price by calculating the difference between the current price and the price from a given period ago Formula: - momentum = data - data(-period) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Momentum_(technical_analysis) Aliases: momentum, MOM, Momentum Inputs: close Outputs: mom Params: - period (default: 10) Period to consider

### mult

Calculates the multiplication of the two inputs Formula: - mult = data0 * data1 Aliases: MULT Inputs: input1, input2 Outputs: mult

### natr

Offers a normalized (against the `close`) version of the `atr`, which can provide better values for comparison against different price ranges. Formula: - natr = 100.0 * atr / close See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_true_range Aliases: NATR, NormalizedAverageTrueRange Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: natr Params: - _period (default: 1) - period (default: 14) - _ma (default: smma)

### obv

Originally called "continuous volume" by Woods and Vignola, it was later named "on-balance volume" by Joseph Granville in his 1963 book Granville's New Key to Stock Market Profits. On Balance Volume (OBV) measures buying and selling pressure as a cumulative indicator, adding volume on up days and subtracting it on down days. Formula: - close > close(-1) => vol_pressure = +volume - close < close(-1) => vol_pressure = -volume - close == close(-1) => vol_pressure = 0 - obv = obv(-1) + vol_pressure See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On-balance_volume - https://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/onbalancevolume.asp - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:on_balance_volume_obv Aliases: OBV, OnBalanceVolume Inputs: close, volume Outputs: obv Params: - _period (default: 1) Period for `close` comparison TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Use first day volume as *positive* seed value

### plus_di

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - +dm = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 - +di = 100 * SmoothedAccum(+dm, period) / SmoothAccum(truerange, period) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - The `_alt` parameter changes the formula to use the SmoothedMovingAverage in place of `SmoothAccum` as is interpreted by several alternative sources (which also effectively implies that `SmoothAccum(truerange, period) = ATR(high, low, close, period)` Aliases: PLUS_DI, PlusDirectionalIndicator Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: plusdi Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Increase period by 1, but keep 1-period early calculation from dm intact

### plus_dm

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. Intended to measure trend strength and directionality Formula: - upmove = high - high(-1) - downmove = low(-1) - low - +dm1 = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 - +dm = SmoothAccum(+dm1, period) See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_directional_movement_index Note: - Although the original definition from Welles Wilder for DirectionalMove does not imply a period, `ta-lib` defines `plus_dm` (+dm) and `minus_dm` (-dm) with a period over which they are accumulted. The accumulation was defined within the scope of the `DirectionalIndicator` (+di, -di) definition. Aliases: PLUS_DM, PlusDirectionalMovement Inputs: high, low Outputs: plusdm Params: - period (default: 14) - _period (default: 1) - _pearly (default: False) - _alt (default: False) - _accum (default: smacc) - _ma (default: smma) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Calculate seed 1-period too early and therefore deliver one period too early

### ppo

Shows the difference between a fast and slow exponential moving averages expressed in percentage. The MACD does the same but expressed in absolute points. Expressing the difference in percentage allows to compare the indicator at different points in time when the underlying value has significatnly different values. Formula: - ppo = 100.0 * (ema(data, pfast)/ema(data, pslow) - 1.0) See: - http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:price_oscillators_ppo Aliases: PPO, PercentagePriceOscillator Inputs: close Outputs: ppo, signal, histogram Params: - pfast (default: 12) - pslow (default: 26) - _ma (default: ema) - psignal (default: 9) Signal smoothing period - _masig (default: None) Signal moving average (if `None`, same as others) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Set moving average to sma instead of ema

### ppofast

```
Shows the difference between a fast and slow exponential moving
averages expressed in percentage. The MACD does the same but expressed in
absolute points.
Expressing the difference in percentage allows to compare the indicator at
different points in time when the underlying value has significatnly
different values.
Most on-line literature shows the percentage calculation having the long
exponential moving average as the denominator. Some sources like MetaStock
use the fast one.
Formula:
- ppo = 100.0 * (1.0 - ema(data, pslow) / ema(data, pshort))
- Alternative = ppo = 100.0 - 100.0 * (ema_slow / ema_fast)
See:
- http://www.metastock.com/Customer/Resources/TAAZ/?c=3&p=94
Aliases: PPOFast, PercentagePriceOscillatorFast
Inputs: close
Outputs: ppo, signal, histogram
Params:
- pfast (default: 12)
- pslow (default: 26)
- _ma (default: ema)
- psignal (default: 9)
Signal smoothing period
- _masig (default: None)
Signal moving average (if `None`, same as others)
TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"):
Set moving average to sma instead of ema
```

### roc

The ROC calculation compares the current price with the price n periods ago, to determine momentum the as the percent change in price. This version scales the percentage to 100. - roc = 100.0 * (data / data(-period) - 1.0) See: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:rate_of_change_roc_and_momentum Aliases: rateofchange, ROC, RateOfChange Inputs: close Outputs: roc Params: - period (default: 12) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 10

### rocp

The ROC calculation compares the current price with the price n periods ago, to determine momentum the as the percent change in price. Formula: - rocp = data / data(-period) - 1.0 See: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:rate_of_change_roc_and_momentum Aliases: ROCP, RateOfChangePercentage Inputs: close Outputs: rocp Params: - period (default: 12) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 10

### rocr

The ROCR calculation compares the current price with the price n periods ago as a ratio to determine momentum. Formula: - rocr = data / data(-period) See: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:rate_of_change_roc_and_momentum Aliases: ROCR, RateOfChangeRatio Inputs: close Outputs: rocr Params: - period (default: 12) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 10

### rocr100

The ROCR calculation compares the current price with the price n periods ago as a ratio to determine momentum, scaled to 100. Formula: - rocr100 = 100.0 * data / data(-period) See: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:rate_of_change_roc_and_momentum Aliases: ROCR100, RateOfChangeRatio100 Inputs: close Outputs: rocr100 Params: - period (default: 12) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 10

### rsi

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. It measures momentum by calculating the ration of higher closes and lower closes after having been smoothed by an average, normalizing the result between 0 and 100 Formula: - up = upday(data) # max(close - close(-1), 0.0) - down = downday(data) # abs( min(close - close(-1), 0.0) ) - maup = movingaverage(up, period) - madown = movingaverage(down, period) - rs = maup / madown - rsi = 100 - 100 / (1 + rs) The moving average used is the one originally defined by Wilder, the SmoothedMovingAverage See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_strength_index Aliases: RSI, RelativeStrengthIndex Inputs: close Outputs: rsi Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider - lookback (default: 1) Lookback for up/down days - _ma (default: smma) Smoothing moving average

### sar

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"* for the RSI SAR stands for *Stop and Reverse* and the indicator was meant as a signal for entry (and reverse) How to select the 1st signal is left unspecified in the book. Because the inputs are "high" and "low", a 1-bar MinusDM is calculated, which accounts for both downmove and upmove of high/low. This is also done by ta-lib See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parabolic_SAR - http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:parabolic_sar Aliases: SAR, psar, ParabolicStopAndReverse Inputs: high, low Outputs: sar Params: - af (default: 0.02) Acceleration Factor - afmax (default: 0.2) Maximum Acceleration Factor

### sarext

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"* for the RSI SAR stands for *Stop and Reverse* and the indicator was meant as a signal for entry (and reverse) How to select the 1st signal is left unspecified in the book. Because the inputs are "high" and "low", a 1-bar MinusDM is calculated, which accounts for both downmove and upmove of high/low. This is also done by ta-lib Compared to the standard `sar`, one can define the initial trend, the value of the initial `sar`, different acceleration factors for long and short, and an offset to be applied to the sar when the trend is reversed See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parabolic_SAR - http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:parabolic_sar Aliases: SAR, psar, ParabolicStopAndReverse Inputs: high, low Outputs: sar Params: - startval (default: 0) Start trend (0 auto, 1 long, -1 short) - aflong (default: 0.02) Acceleration Factor (Long) - afmaxlong (default: 0.2) Maximum Acceleration Factor (Long) - afshort (default: 0.02) Acceleration Factor (Long) - afmaxshort (default: 0.2) Maximum Acceleration Factor (Long) - offsetonreverse (default: 0.0) Offset to apply when reversing position

### sin

Calculates the `sine` function of the input Formula: - sin = sine(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions Aliases: SIN, sine Inputs: close Outputs: sin Params: - degrees (default: False)

### sinh

Calculates the `cosecant` function of the input (1/sine) Formula: - sinh = cosecant(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions Aliases: SINH, cosecant Inputs: close Outputs: sinh Params: - degrees (default: False)

### sma

Non-weighted average of the last n periods Formula: - movav = Sum(data, period) / period See also: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moving_average#Simple_moving_average Aliases: SMA, SimpleMovingAverage Inputs: close Outputs: sma Params: - period (default: 30) Period for the moving average calculation

### smacc

Smoothed (Exponential-like) Accumulation (`smacc`) as defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"*. The accumuation technique is used in defining the Directional Indicator (+DI/-DI), to create an smoothed accumulation of the Directional Move (+DM/-DM) and the TrueRange over a period of time. Although the technique is similar to the Smoothed Moving Average (SMMA), this is not an average. Formula: - smacc = Sum(data, period) # seed - smacc = samacc(-1) - smacc(-1)/period + data See also: - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:average_directional_index_adx Note: - Welles Wilder states in the book that the seed value is the sum of the 1st n periods (n = 14 in the narrative), but the sample worksheet in the book sums 13 (n - 1), with the 1st day not having a value because, for example, the TrueRange does not have a value. The implementation uses the exact period as seed, which can be overridden with the `_pearly` parameter (setting it to `True`) to advance the seed calculation by 1 period (i.e.: n-1) Modern sources like stockcharts are also conflicting, showing a picture with a step by step reproduction of Wilders' worksheet, but offering a sample Excel sheet which calculates the seed with the 1st n periods and not n-1 Aliases: WildersSmoothedAccmulation, SmoothedAccumulation Inputs: close Outputs: smacc Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider - _pearly (default: False) `False`: use period - 1 as seed, keeping period - _seed (default: 2) Default to use sum of period vals as seed TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Seed with 1 value less than the period and accumulate afterwards

### smma

Smoothed Moving Average used by Wilder in his 1978 book `New Concepts in Technical Trading` Defined in his book originally as: - new_value = (old_value * (period - 1) + new_data) / period Which is a moving average that smoothes data exponentially over time. - Exponential Smotthing factor: alpha = 1 / period Formula - prev = mean(data, period) - movav = prev * (1.0 - alpha) + newdata * alpha - (or alternatively # movav = prev + alpha(new - prev)) See also: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moving_average#Modified_moving_average Aliases: SMMA, SmoothedMovingAverage, MMA, ModifiedMovingAverage Inputs: close Outputs: smma Params: - period (default: 30) Period for the moving average calculation - _seed (default: 0) Default to use average of periods as seed

### sqrt

Calculates the square root of the input Formula: - sqrt = sqrt(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Square_root Aliases: SQRT Inputs: close Outputs: sqrt

### stddev

Calculates the standard deviation of the passed data for a given period, considering the data to be the entire population See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation Aliases: StdDev, STDDEV, StandardDeviation, stddev_p, STDDEV_P Inputs: close Outputs: std Params: - period (default: 20) Period to consider - ddof (default: 0) Degree of Freedom: 0 = population, > 0 sample TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 5

### stddev_s

Calculates the standard deviation of the passed data for a given period, considering the data to be a sample See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation Aliases: stddev_sample, STDDEV_S, StandardDeviationSample Inputs: close Outputs: std Params: - period (default: 20) - ddof (default: 1) Degree of Freedom: 0 = population, > 0 sample TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 5

### stochastic

By Dr. George Lane in the 50s. It compares a closing price to the price range and tries to show convergence if the closing prices are close to the extremes - It will go up if closing prices are close to the highs - It will go down if closing prices are close to the lows It shows divergence if the extremes keep on growing/decreasing but closing prices do not in the same manner (distance to the extremes increases) Formula: - hh = highest(high, period) - ll = lowest(low, period) - kfast = 100 * (close - ll) / (hh - ll) - k = MovingAverage(kfast, pfast) - d = MovingAverage(k, pslow) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stochastic_oscillator Aliases: stoch, Stochastic, STOCHASTIC, STOCH Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: k, d Params: - period (default: 14) - pfast (default: 3) - _ma (default: sma) - pslow (default: 3) Slow moving average period - _maslow (default: None) Slow moving average (if `None`, use same as fast) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 5

### stochf

By Dr. George Lane in the 50s. It compares a closing price to the price range and tries to show convergence if the closing prices are close to the extremes - It will go up if closing prices are close to the highs - It will go down if closing prices are close to the lows It shows divergence if the extremes keep on growing/decreasing but closing prices do not in the same manner (distance to the extremes increases) Formula: - hh = highest(high, period) - ll = lowest(low, period) - kfast = 100 * (close - ll) / (hh - ll) - dfast = MovingAverage(kfast, pfast) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stochastic_oscillator Aliases: stochfast, StochasticFast, STOCHF Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: k, d Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider - pfast (default: 3) Fast smoothing period - _ma (default: sma) Moving average to use TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): Change period to 5

### stochrsi

Presented by Chande and Kroll the 1990 book: "The New Technical Trader". The RSI is fed into a atochastic-like calculation to increase its sensitivity. The recommendation is to keep the period for looking for highest highes and lowest lows the same as the for the RSI, but it can be played with for experimentation. Scaling to 100 is also suggested as a possiblity (the range is 0.0 => 1.0) Formula: - rsi = RSI(data, period) - maxrsi = Highest(rsi, period) - minrsi = Lowest(rsi, period) - stochrsi = (rsi - minrsi) / (maxrsi - minrsi) See - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:stochrsi Aliases: StochRsi, STOCHRSI Inputs: close Outputs: stochrsi Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider - _philo (default: None) Period for highest/lowest (None => period) - _scale (default: 1.0) Scale the result by this factor TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): ta-lib uses internally the fast stochastic to calculate the stochrsi, with these side-effects - The scale changes from 0.0-1.0 to 0.0-100.0 - A 2nd output is returned (stochrsi as defined by its authors has only 1 output) - The highest/lowest period is no longer symmetric with the rsi period Compatibility does this - Change the scale to 0.0-100.0 - Change the highest/lowest period 5 - Add a 2nd output named 'd' (as the 2nd output of the stochastic) - Run a simple moving average on it of period 3

### sub

Calculates the subtraction of the two inputs Formula: - sub = data0 - data1 Aliases: SUB Inputs: input1, input2 Outputs: sub

### sum

Rolling sum over `period` of the input Formula: - sum = sum(data, period) Aliases: sumn, Sum, SumN, SUM Inputs: close Outputs: sum Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider

### t3

```
Described first by Tim Tillson in Stocks & Commodities V16:1, January 1998.
It first generalizes the DEMA by using a "volume" factor to put weight on
the 1st or 2nd factor of the DEMA to smooth the output.
And it then passes the input three times (hence T3) through the generalized
dema to reduce phase lag.
The default behavir implements the quadractic equation MetaStock version
presented in the article, which is also ta-lib compatible.
Using the paramter `_gd` one can enable the GeneralizedDema Triple Filter
formulation shown in the article (which is expanded to the quadratic
version) by the auther. The initial results are similar but not the
same. The results converge aftera number of bars (period dependent) to at
lest 6 decimals of precision (period 5 => after 71 bars)
See also:
- https://www.fmlabs.com/reference/default.htm?url=T3.htm
- http://www.tradingpedia.com/forex-trading-indicators/t3-moving-average-indicator/
- https://www.tradingtechnologies.com/xtrader-help/x-study/technical-indicator-definitions/t3-t3/
Aliases: T3, TilsonsT3
Inputs: close
Outputs: t3
Params:
- period (default: 5)
Period to consider
- vfactor (default: 0.7)
Volume factor
- _ma (default: ema)
Moving Average to use
- _gd (default: False)
`True` use articl triple gd filter math formulation
```

### tan

Calculates the `tangent` function of the input Formula: - tan = tangent(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions Aliases: TAN, tangent Inputs: close Outputs: tan Params: - degrees (default: False)

### tanh

Calculates the `cotangent` function of the input (1/tangent) Formula: - tanh = cotangent(data) See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions Aliases: TANH, cotangent Inputs: close Outputs: tanh Params: - degrees (default: False)

### tema

```
TEMA was first time introduced in 1994, in the article "Smoothing Data with
Faster Moving Averages" by Patrick G. Mulloy in "Technical Analysis of
Stocks & Commodities" magazine.
It attempts to reduce the inherent lag associated to Moving Averages
Formula:
- ema1 = ema(data, period)
- ema2 = ema(ema1, period)
- ema3 = ema(ema2, period)
- tema = 3 * ema1 - 3 * ema2 + ema3
See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_exponential_moving_average
Aliases: TEMA, TripleExponentialMovingAverage
Inputs: close
Outputs: tema
Params:
- period (default: 30)
Period to consider
- _ma (default: ema)
Moving Average to use
```

### trima

The Triangular Moving Average (TRIMA) is an average of an average, similar to the `sma` but placing more weight on the middle values due to the second smoothing. Formula: - if period is odd: p1 = p2 = (period + 1) // 2 - if period is even: p1, p2 = (p // 2) + 1, p //2 - trima = sma(sma(data, p2), p1) See also: - https://www.tradingtechnologies.com/xtrader-help/x-study/technical-indicator-definitions/triangular-moving-average-trima/ Aliases: TRIMA, TriangularMovingAverage Inputs: close Outputs: trima Params: - period (default: 30) Period for the moving average calculation - _ma (default: sma) Moving average to use

### trix

Defined by Jack Hutson in the 80s and shows the Rate of Change (%) or slope of a triple exponentially smoothed moving average Formula: - ema1 = EMA(data, period) - ema2 = EMA(ema1, period) - ema3 = EMA(ema2, period) - trix = 100 * (ema3 / ema3(1) - 1) Where -1 is the lookback period to consider the rate of change The final formula can be simplified to: 100 * (ema3 / ema3(-1) - 1) The moving average used is the one originally defined by Wilder, the SmoothedMovingAverage See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trix_(technical_analysis) - http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:trix Aliases: Trix, TRIX Inputs: close Outputs: trix Params: - period (default: 30) Period to consider - _ma (default: ema) Moving average to use

### truehigh

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"* for the ATR Records the "true high" which is the maximum of today's high and yesterday's close Formula: - truehigh = max(high, close_prev) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_true_range Aliases: TR, TrueRange, trange, TRANGE Inputs: low, close Outputs: truehi Params: - _period (default: 1) Period to consider

### truelow

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book *"New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems"* for the ATR Records the "true low" which is the minimum of today's low and yesterday's close Formula: - truelow = min(low, close_prev) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_true_range Aliases: TR, TrueRange, trange, TRANGE Inputs: low, close Outputs: truelo Params: - _period (default: 1) Period to consider

### truerange

Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems. Formula: - max(high - low, abs(high - prev_close), abs(prev_close - low) which can be simplified to - truerange = max(high, prev_close) - min(low, prev_close) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_true_range The idea is to take the previous close into account to calculate the range if it yields a larger range than the daily range (High - Low) Aliases: TR, TrueRange, trange, TRANGE Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: tr Params: - _period (default: 1) Period for high/low vs close for truerange calc

### tsf

Linear Regression of the values of an asset (y-axis) along the "x" (period window, x-axix) using the least squares method to find the best fit. Formula: - y = b + m * x **This indicator returns: "b + m * x" (using x = period)** See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinary_least_squares#Simple_linear_regression_model - https://devarea.com/linear-regression-with-numpy/ Aliases: TSF, TimeSeriesForecast Inputs: close Outputs: tsf Params: - period (default: 14) TA-LIB (with compatibility flag "_talib=True"): `pminus1` is there for compatibility with the broken ta-lib behavior If active, "p1" will be p - 1 and calculations will diverge by having "0" as the 1st item of "x" ([0, period] instead of [1, period + 1]) The 1st behavior is used by ta-lib for `linearreg`, `linearreg_intercept` and `tsf`. The 2nd behavior is used by ta-lib for `linearreg_slope` and `linearreg_angle`. Intercept can be calculated as follows b = (Sum(y) - m * Sum(x)) / n. In the default `ta-lib` behavior (and in the compatible one with this method) this equation isn't true due to the different period ranges used for the calculations.

### typprice

Delivers the typical price Formula: - tp = (high + low + close) / 3 See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typical_price Aliases: typicalprice, TypicalPrice, TypPrice, TYPPRICE Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: tp Params: - divisor (default: 3.0) Factor to use in the division

### ultimateoscillator

Developed by Larry Williams. It is based on notion of buying or selling pressure by considering where where a the closing price is within the true range. Formula (default values): - bp = close - truelow(low, close) # buying pressure - tr = truerange(high, low, close) - av7 = Sum(bp, 7) / Sum(tr, 7) - av14 = Sum(bp, 14) / Sum(tr, 14) - av28= Sum(bp, 28) / Sum(tr, 28) - uo = 100 * (4*av7 + 2*av14 + av18) / (4 + 2 + 1) See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_oscillator - http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:ultimate_oscillator Aliases: ultosc, UltimateOscillator, ULTOSC Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: uo Params: - period1 (default: 7) Faster oscillating period - period2 (default: 14) Medium oscillating period - period3 (default: 28) Slower oscillating period - factor1 (default: 4.0) Factor weight for the faster oscillation - factor2 (default: 2.0) Factor weight for the medium oscillation - factor3 (default: 1.0) Factor weight for the slower oscillation

### var

Variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variance Aliases: VAR, Var Inputs: close Outputs: var Params: - period (default: 5) Period to consider - ddof (default: 0) Degree of Freedom: 0 = population, > 0 sample

### var_s

Variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean This version considers the population is a sample (ddof=1) See: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variance Aliases: varsample, VARS, VarSample Inputs: close Outputs: var Params: - period (default: 5) - ddof (default: 1) Degree of Freedom: 0 = population, > 0 sample

### wclprice

Delivers the Weighted Close Price Formula: - wcl = (high + low + close * 2) / 4 See: - https://www.metastock.com/customer/resources/taaz/?p=124 - http://www.ta-guru.com/Book/TechnicalAnalysis/TechnicalIndicators/WeightedClose.php5 Aliases: WCLPrice, WeightedClosePrice, WCLPRICE, weightedcloseprice Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: wcl Params: - weight (default: 2.0) Weight Factor for close - divisor (default: 4.0) Factor to use in the division

### williamsr

Developed by Larry Williams to show the relation of closing prices to the highest-lowest range of a given period. Known as Williams %R (but % is not allowed in Python identifiers) Formula: - num = highest(high, period) - close - den = highest(high, period) - lowest(low, period) - %R = -100.0 * (num / den) See: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williams_%25R - https://school.stockcharts.com/doku.php?id=technical_indicators:williams_r Aliases: willr, WilliamsR, WILLIAMSR, WILLR Inputs: high, low, close Outputs: r Params: - period (default: 14) Period to consider

### wma

A Moving Average which gives an arithmetic weighting to values with the newest having the more weight Formula: - weights = range(1, period + 1) - coef = 2 / (period * (period + 1)) - movav = coef * Sum(weight[i] * data[period - i] for i in range(period)) See also: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moving_average#Weighted_moving_average Aliases: WMA, WeightedMovingAverage Inputs: close Outputs: wma Params: - period (default: 30) Period for the moving average calculation - coef (default: 1.0)